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加央行为何不愿在百元新钞印上亚裔女子图像?

2012-8-25 08:59|加拿大乐活网 Lahoo.ca |原作者: 埃里克-爱民-伍德(Eric Emin Wood)

乐活按语:在魁北克省,描绘亚裔人士而不描绘任何其他民族的人被认为是有争议的


  Why did Bank of Canada reject an Asian woman on the new $100 bill?

2011年11月开始流通的新纸币上的图案包括一名正在使用显微镜的女性研究员。



  8月17日星期五,加通社发表了一篇文章,谈及加拿大新版$100元面额塑质钞票上图像的重新设计。
  On Friday August 17, the Canadian Press published an article about a redesigned image on Canada’s new polymer $100 bills.

  2011年11月开始流通的新纸币上的图案包括一名正在使用显微镜的女性研究员。
  The bills’ current design, which began circulating last November, includes a female researcher peering into a microscope.

  不过,根据加拿大央行委托市场研究公司Strategic Counsel进行的焦点小组所做的报告显示,原始图案描绘了一名看似亚裔的女性研究员往显微镜里窥视的图像。加通社得到了该报告,后来央行也确认了故事的真实性。
  However, according to reports from a focus group commissioned by the Bank of Canada, conducted by research firm the Strategic Counsel, obtained by the Canadian Press and later confirmed by the Bank itself, the original image depicted a female researcher of apparently Asian descent peering into the microscope.

  该篇报道的原作者、加通社渥太华分社社长迪安•毕比告诉大中报:“我险些没有写这篇文章,因为我认为不会有人听从这些焦点小组的意见。在最后的时刻,我查到了$100元面值钞票的样子,我认为他们改掉有亚洲人面容特征的图像这一举措颇为引人注目。”
  “I almost didn’t do a story because I thought that nobody would have listened to these focus groups,” Dean Beeby, the Canadian Press’s Ottawa deputy bureau chief who wrote the original article, told Chinese News. “At the last minute I looked up an image of this $100 bill, and I found it quite striking that they had purged this image with apparently Asian features.”

  加拿大央行传讯总监吉尔•瓦迪告诉大中报说,设计新的纸币要分多个阶段。与今年3月份开始流通的新版$50元钞票和将于今年11月开始流通的新版$20元钞票一样,新版$100元的钞票也描绘了一个主题:就$50元新钞而言,主题是加拿大致力于医疗研究的精神。
  Jill Vardy, the Bank of Canada’s communications chief, told Chinese News there are multiple stages when designing a new bill. Like the new $50 bills that began circulating in March and the new $20s that will begin circulating in November, the new $100 bill is meant to depict a theme: in this case, Canada’s commitment to medical research.

  在概念阶段中,加央行的设计师创造了一系列的图像,包括一位女性研究员,以呈现该钞票的主题。
  At the concept stage the Bank’s designers created a series of images, including the female researcher, to illustrate the bill’s theme.

  随后,加央行聘请Strategic Counsel进行几次焦点小组座谈会,以便评估这些图像传达该主题的效果。
  The Bank then hired the Strategic Counsel to arrange a number of focus groups to evaluate the images’ effectiveness in conveying that theme.

  焦点小组报告称,“很多人对女性科学家/研究员的图像表示肯定,因为它与传统的成见决裂。有的人对在钞票上描绘一名亚裔的图像表示喜欢,因为它表现出多样性或多元文化的性质(这种观点在多伦多尤其强烈)。”
  “The inclusion of a female scientist/researcher is viewed positively by many because it steps outside of the traditional stereotype,” the focus group report said. “Some like what is perceived to be a representation of an Asian person on a banknote as it is seen to represent diversity or multiculturalism (this is particularly strong in Toronto).”

  然而,该报告称,“有的人认为这张钞票传达了一种不合理的成见(即亚洲人倾向于从事科学工作)。在魁北克省,描绘亚裔人士而不描绘任何其他民族的人被认为是有争议的”,而且有的参与者认为亚裔人“不应是描绘在钞票上的唯一一个民族。钞票上还应绘有其他的民族。”
  However, “some feel the note conveys an inappropriate stereotype (i.e., Asians have an affinity for the sciences),” the report said. “In Quebec, the inclusion of an Asian without representing any other ethnicities was seen to be contentious,” with some participants feeling that Asians “should not be the only ethnicity represented on the banknotes. Other ethnicities should also be shown.”

  当大中报与Strategic Counsel取得联系时,该机构的代表称,他们不能透露有多少人参与这些焦点小组、他们是如何被选择、以及他们的报酬是多少。他们建议本报与加拿大央行联络。
  When contacted by Chinese News, Strategic Counsel representatives said they could not reveal how many participants were involved in the focus groups, how they were selected or what they were paid. They suggested contacting the Bank of Canada.

  瓦迪女士表示,虽然加央行无法操控参与者的选择,但是“我们坚持要求这些焦点小组听取范围广泛的加拿大人的反馈,而且我们知道实际情况确实如此。”
  Ms. Vardy said that while the Bank doesn’t have a role in participant selection, “we do insist on, and we know that the focus groups hear from, a broad range of Canadians.”

  加通社报道称,2009年10月进行的焦点小组研究是分别在多伦多、卡加利、蒙特利尔和弗雷德里克顿进行的,其总费用为$5.3万元。
  The Canadian Press article said the October 2009 focus group studies were conducted in Calgary, Toronto, Montreal and Fredericton for a total cost of $53,000.

  瓦迪女士表示,在概念阶段之后,新的钞票是根据央行的设计准则而设计的;例如,不能描绘任何特定人物,也不能描绘来自任何特定种族背景的人。
  After the concept stage, Ms. Vardy said the new bill was designed from the ground up, which in accordance with the Bank’s design principles included removing any depiction of specific individuals, or individuals with specific ethnicities.

  她说,除了钞票正面上描绘的女王和加拿大总理以外,钞票上描绘的所有人都是一个合成图像,因为央行要描绘的是一个主题而非某位特定的人物。
  Except for the queen and prime ministers on the front, she said, every person depicted on a bill is a composite because the bank wants to portray a theme, not a particular person.

  瓦迪女士说:“我们试图描绘的主题是一般意义上的加拿大医疗创新,而不是某个特定社区的医疗创新。”
  “We’re trying to portray the theme of Canada’s medical innovation in general, not medical innovation in a specific community,” Ms. Vardy said.

  加通社的毕比先生说,他被告知加拿大央行的理由,并认为这些理由实际上只是一个借口。他认为,有些人之所以感到烦恼,是因为该名女士是一名有色人种的少数族裔,而非因为她属于特定的种族。
  The Canadian Press’s Mr. Beeby said that he was told the Bank of Canada’s reasons and felt they were an excuse. He thinks that certain people were bothered by the woman being a visible minority, not a particular ethnicity.

  他说:“(新版)钞票的图像描绘的是一名有民族背景的人。在我看来,她像是一名白种人。我不明白为什么央行说他们不要描绘某个特定的种族。每个人都有自己的种族归属,不管他们是否属于有色人种少数裔。”
  “The image on the (current) bill is of a person of an ethnic origin. She looks Caucasian to me,” he said. “I don’t understand why the bank says they don’t want to portray particular ethnicities. Everyone has an ethnicity, whether they’re a visible minority or not.”

  加通社报道发表不久后,加拿大平权会会长黄煜文举行了一次新闻发布会。
  Victor Wong, Executive Director of the Chinese Canadian National Council, held a press conference soon after the Canadian Press story was published.

  他告诉大中报:“我们认为,加拿大央行改掉那张图像是屈服于批评的表现。我已与加拿大央行进行交谈并表达我的失望。加拿大华裔社区有着长达150年的历史。亚裔的故事也是加拿大的故事。他们试图不冒犯任何人,结果在无意中抹去了我们的历史。”
  “It’s our position that Bank of Canada caved into criticism when they changed the image, and I had a conversation with the Bank of Canada to express my disappointment,” he told Chinese News. “The Chinese-Canadian community has a 150-year history in Canada. The Asian story is a Canadian one. They’re trying to be so inoffensive that they are inadvertently erasing our history through this policy.”

  圣三一-士巴丹拿选区议员邹至蕙未能接受大中报的采访,但她的办公室在一份声明中说,邹女士“认为在加拿大$100元面额钞票上拒不描绘一名亚裔女士是一个冒犯性的举动,”并且认为“加拿大央行应当重新考虑自己的政策,使其纸币反映出加拿大丰富多彩的民族多样性。”
  Trinity-Spadina MP Olivia Chow could not speak with Chinese News directly, but her office provided a statement that said Ms. Chow “finds it offensive that an Asian woman cannot be depicted on Canadian $100 bills,” and thinks “the Bank of Canada should reconsider its policy so that their bank notes reflect Canada’s rich ethnic diversity.”

  8月20日星期一,加拿大央行行长马克•卡尼将该图像公诸于众,并且承诺对导致该图像被弃用的设计过程进行检讨。但是他没有接受媒体采访。
  On Monday August 20, Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney released the image and promised to review the design process that led to its removal, though he did not grant further media interviews.

  卡尼先生在一份声明中说:“我向那些感觉受到冒犯的人表示歉意——央行在处理这个问题时未能满足加拿大人寄予我们的期望。我们的纸币属于所有加拿大人,央行所从事的工作也是为了所有加拿大人而做的。”
  “I apologize to those who were offended – the Bank’s handling of this issue did not meet the standards Canadians justifiably expect of us,” Mr. Carney said in a statement. “Our bank notes belong to all Canadians, and the work we do at the Bank is for all Canadians.”

  到目前为止,其他的新版塑质钞票设计都没有普通加拿大老百姓的图像。新版$50元和$20元的钞票分别绘有一艘用于研究的破冰船和加拿大国家维米纪念碑。
  So far, no other polymer bill design has included images of ordinary Canadians. The new $50 and $20 bill designs feature a research icebreaker and the Canadian National Vimy Memorial, respectively.

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